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Stormwater Monitoring in Rapid City
Project Period: 2008-current
Cooperator: City of Rapid City
Project Chief: Galen Hoogestraat
Rapid City has implemented programs to improve stormwater quality in response to the “Phase II Final Rule” guidelines issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). In 2008, the City of Rapid City requested that USGS provide assistance in developing strategies for a stormwater monitoring plan that would focus on helping to evaluate the effectiveness of the City’s improvement programs. Pilot monitoring activities were initiated during 2008 in the Arrowhead drainage, and were expanded in 2010 to include the Meade-Hawthorne drainage in order to provide comparison of water-quality results between a fully developed basin (Meade-Hawthorne) and a mixed-landuse basin (Arrowhead).
The consistently higher bacteria and total suspended solids concentrations in the Meade-Hawthorne drainage may be indicative of the relative lack of sediment controls (detention ponds, vegetated channels, wetlands), compared to the controls and lower level of development in the Arrowhead basin. Arrowhead basin’s drainage contains about 90 percent open or natural channels, compared to just 21 percent in the Meade-Hawthorne basin.
Three constructed stormwater control structures were sampled in 2010–11 to assess the ability of these to remove sediment and bacteria. Similar to other studies across the Nation, data collected on these structures support the conclusion that dry detention basins are not as effective at bacteria removal compared to wet retention ponds with a permanent pool.
Link to City of Rapid City's stormwater program
Baker, K.K., Stamm, John, and Kenner, S.J., 2010, Monitoring storm-water quality in the Arrowhead drainage basin, Rapid City, SD 2008-09 [abs]: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 42, no. 3, p. 15. Abstract.
Fisher, E.J., Schiferl, Keri, Hoogestraat, G.K., and Kenner, S.J., 2011, Monitoring stormwater quality in two drainage basins in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2010 [abs] in 2011 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, 9th, Rapid City, S. Dak., April 28, 2011, Program and abstracts .
Fisher, E.J., Hoogestraat, G.K., and Kenner, S.J., 2012, Monitoring stormwater quality in two storage ponds in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2010–11 [abs] in 2012 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, 10th, Rapid City, S. Dak., April 19, 2012, Program and abstracts .
Hoogestraat, G.K., 2015, Water-quality characteristics of stormwater runoff in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2008–14: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015–5069, 27 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155069.
Hoogestraat, G.K., 2015, Water-quality characteristics of stormwater in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2008-14 [abs]: in 2015 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, 13th, Rapid City, S. Dak., April 15, 2015, p. 30, Program and abstracts .
Prann, Robert, Hoogestraat, Galen, Benning, Jennifer, and Kenner, Scott, 2012, Monitoring storm water quality in two drainage basins in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2010-2012 [abs]: 2012 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference Program and Abstracts, October 30, 2012, Brookings, S. Dak., p. 31. Program and abstracts .
Prann, R.A., Hoogestraat, G.K., Benning, J.L., and Kenner, S.J., 2013, Monitoring stormwater quality in two drainage basins in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2010–2012 [abs] in 2013 Western South Dakota Hydrology Conference, 11th, Rapid City, S. Dak., April 18, 2013, p. 15, Program and abstracts .
Presentation of "Monitoring stormwater quality in two drainage basins in Rapid City, South Dakota, 2010-12,"by Robert Prann and Galen Hoogestraat. Presented at the 2012 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference on October 30, 2012, in Brookings, South Dakota.
Video: Study of Stormwater Runoff in Rapid City, SD
This video shows an author interview with Galen Hoogestraat on the study of stormwater runoff in Rapid City, SD (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5069). This video also is available on YouTube.
Runoff flowing through Arrowhead Golf Course.
For each storm event, automated samplers collect 24 water samples at defined time intervals throughout the runoff period. The first samples usually have less sediment (shown on the left) because this runoff comes directly from impervious surfaces such as streets and parking lots. Samples near the peak flow (center bottles) usually have the highest sediment and bacteria concentrations.
Stormwater sampling sites include a stage plate (left), sample intake line (center), and stage logger (right).
USGS contract student Emily Fisher collects a water sample for the stormwater study.
Map showing stormwater monitoring locations in Rapid City
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