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Black Hills Area Floods - 1901 to 1910

Many floods were reported during 1901 to 1910, which may be one of the most active decades for flooding in the Black Hills area. Widespread flooding occurred in 1901, with the heaviest flooding in the northern parts of the Black Hills and areas north of Belle Fourche.

Widespread flooding occurred again in the northern Black Hills in June 1904, with reports indicating fairly severe flooding in some areas. This is one of the earliest years for which quantitative information is available from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow records; however, availability is limited to about a dozen stations with sporadic records within a general time frame of about 190306 (Miller and Driscoll, 1998). A peak flow of 5,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) was recorded on June 5, 1904, for station 06431500 along Spearfish Creek at Spearfish, which is one of the first large floods recorded at a USGS gaging station in the Black Hills area and through 2009 remains as the peak of record for this station.

Substantial flooding occurred in Hot Springs during two separate weeked in June 1905, and a severe storm was reported in the Edgemont area in June. Water was reported to be 15 ft deep in bottom areas in Sundance, Wyo., following a severe storm on July 11, 1905, and extensive rail damage throughout the Black Hills area during the month. A peak flow of 13,000 ft3/s was recorded on July 30, 1905, during the first year of USGS data collection at station 06395000 along the Cheyenne River at Edgemont, which is an unusually large peak for this time of year and provides an indication of probable widespread high-water conditions because of the large drainage area (7,143 square miles) involved. A peak flow of 9,150 ft3/s was recorded on August 12, 1905, during the first year of USGS data collection at station 06400000 along Hat Creek near Edgemont.

The year 1907 is one of the most noteworthy years for flooding in the Black Hills area. The Deadwood area had a record late snowfall of at least 2.5 ft in late May that followed heavy rain over a previous period of 60 hours. The widespread wet conditions that persisted through at least the end of May 1907 might have been a contributing factor to severe and large-scale flooding in the Black Hills that developed beginning the afternoon of Wednesday, June 12. Severe flooding was reported in Stagebarn Canyon and in the Little Elk and Elk Creek drainages. A peak flow of 16,000 ft3/s occurred along Boxelder Creek (station 06422500). The 1907 storms and flooding may be among the most severe that have been experienced in the Black Hills area since European settlement.

During 1908, Hot Springs had substantial flooding from heavy rainfall on May 31 that was exacerbated by saturated conditions from prolonged rains of the previous week.  A severe storm on May 9, 1909, caused damage and flooding in various parts of the Black Hills. During late May and early June 1909, widespread flooding from prolonged rains occurred in many streams in the northern Black Hills, with flooding along Spearfish Creek reported as some of the most substantial. In 1910, flooding occurred along the Belle Fourche River.


Pluma, June 5, 1904 (photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Pluma, June 5, 1904. Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Waite building in Deadwood, June 5, 1904. Photograph courtesty of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD
Waite building in Deadwood, June 5, 1904. Photograph courtesty of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Between Deadwood and Pluma, 1904 (Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Between Deadwood and Pluma, 1904. Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Railroad damage in Deadwood following 1907 flood (photo courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Railroad damage in Deadwood following a flood in June 1907. Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Railroad damage in Deadwood following 1907 flood (photo courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Railroad tracks were underwater in Deadwood following a flood in June 1907. Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Damage in Central City following a flood in June 1907 (photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Damage in Central City following a flood in June 1907. Photograph courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD (used with permission).
Flooding in former town of Terry (near Deadwood) in 1909 (photo courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
The railroad was being rebuilt in 1908 following a devastating flood that claimed the lives of three people in Stagebarn Canyon near Piedmont in 1907. Photograph courtesy of John Honerkamp.
Flooding in former town of Terry (near Deadwood) in 1909 (photo courtesy of Adams Museum, Deadwood, SD)
Severe flooding occurred in Belle Fourche in 1910. Photograph courtesy of James O. Aplan, Antiques & Art (Piedmont, SD) (used with permission).

flood iconPhotos of floods in the Black Hills area during 1901-1910



[All locations in South Dakota unless otherwise specified. Relative magnitude of event: 1, extreme; 2, severe; 3, moderate; 4, minor; 5, very minor; ft3/s, cubic feet per second. USGS, U.S. Geological Survey; --, not applicable]

Date of storm Date of flood Relative magnitude of event Primary stream Secondary stream(s) Primary town or area Description of event Source of information
1 2 3 4 5
June 11, 1901 June 11, 1901 -- -- -- -- X Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Small rise in Rapid Creek occurred west of Rapid City. Rapid City Journal (June 12, 1901).
June 10–11, 1901 June 11, 1901 -- -- -- X X Hay Creek  Redwater and Belle Fourche Rivers Belle Fourche Hay Creek was reported as the highest ever known to date.  All streams near Belle Fourche reported to be high. Rapid City Journal, Belle Fourche Bee (June 13, 1901). Page 1; page 2.
June 1901 June 1901 -- -- -- X X Various Various Belle Fourche All streams north of Belle Fourche reported to be high. Rapid City Journal, Pioneer Times (June 13, 1901).
June 1901 June 1901 -- -- -- X X Redwater Various Beulah, Wyo. Flooding reported in Beulah, Wyo.  Many area bridges were out. Rapid City Journal, Daily Independent-Deadwood (June 16, 1901).
June 19, 1901 June 19, 1901 -- -- -- -- X -- -- Rapid City (?) Very heavy rain reported with flooding of low-lying areas. Rapid City Journal (June 20, 1901).
June 19, 1901 June 19, 1901 -- -- -- -- X -- -- Rapid City Article described aftermath from storm on June 19, 1901. Rapid City Journal (June 21, 1901).
June 19, 1901 June 19, 1901 -- -- -- -- X Deadman Creek -- Sturgis Heavy rain and flooding reported for Sturgis area. Rapid City Journal (June 25, 1901).
-- July 22, 1901 -- -- -- -- X Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Flooding of streets reported for Rapid City. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2008)
-- July 1901 -- -- X -- -- Cascade Creek -- Cascade Hotel destroyed by flooding.  Date unknown, but reported in July newspaper account.   Twomey and Magee (1983)
June 1904 June 5, 1904 -- -- X -- -- Spearfish Creek -- Spearfish Peak flow of 5,000 ft3/s recorded on June 5, 1904, during early period of USGS data collection (station 06431500; Spearfish Creek at Spearfish). U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
June 1904 June 5, 1904 -- -- X -- -- Redwater River -- Belle Fourche Peak flow of 8,050 ft3/s recorded during early period of USGS data collection (station 06434000; Redwater Creek at Belle Fourche). U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
June 4–5, 1904 June 4,5, 1904 -- -- X X -- Spearfish Creek Beaver, Sand, Crow, Iron, and Whitewood Creeks Spearfish Reported as worst known flood as of date of article (1904) for Spearfish.  All area streams were reported high.  Four deaths occurred in Deadwood area, where damage was most severe since 1883. Queen City Mail (June 8, 1904). Page 1; page 2.
June 4–6, 1904 Apr.–June 1904 -- -- X X -- Bear Butte Creek Various Sturgis Record rainfall reported for the Black Hills area.  Very high water occurred in Sturgis area and much of northern Black Hills. Black Hills Press (June 8, 1904). Page 1; page 2.
June 8, 1904 Aug. 1904 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek -- Deadwood Substantial flooding reported for Deadwood, probably the worst since 1883. Weekly Pioneer Times (June 9, 1904). Page 1; page 2.
June 8, 1904 Aug. 1904 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek Various Deadwood This article appears to be a continuation of the previous article (Weekly Pioneer Times, June 9, 1904). Weekly Pioneer Times (June 9, 1904).
June 9, 1905 June 9, 1905 -- -- -- -- X Fall River Various Hot Springs Heavy flood damage reported for Hot Springs and to railroad west of there. Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 10, 1905). Page 1; page 2.
June 9, 1905 June 9, 1905 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Same event described as reported by Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 10, 1905) above. Custer Chronicle (June 17, 1905). Page 1; page 2.
June 17, 1905 June 17, 1905 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Second major flood within 2 weeks reported.  Perhaps more severe than the previous flood. Hot Springs Weekly Star (April 18, 1946 reprint of June 23, 1905 article). Page 1; page 2.
June 1905 June 9 and 17, 1905 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Recount provided for two floods that damaged bridges. Twomey and Magee (1983)
June 17, 1905 June 17, 1905 -- -- -- X -- Cheyenne River Cottonwood Creek Edgemont Heavy rain, hail, lightning, and flooding reported for Edgemont and upstream from Edgemont.  Fourteen residents were knocked unconscious by lightning, and many sheep were killed by hail. Edgemont Express (June 23, 1905). Page 1; page 2.
June 23, 1905 June 23, 1905 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Article described same event as reported by Hot Springs Weekly Star (June 23, 1905) above. Custer Chronicle (July 1, 1905). Page 1; page 2.
July 1905 July 1905 -- -- -- -- X -- -- -- Heavy rains reported throughout Black Hills area. Black Hills Journal (July 5, 1905).
July 11, 1905 July 11, 1905 -- -- -- -- X Sundance Creek -- Sundance, Wyo. Tornadoes, heavy rain, and flooding reported for Sundance, Wyo.  Water in Sundance reported 15 feet deep in bottom areas. Deadwood Pioneer Times (July 12, 1905).
-- -- -- -- -- -- X -- -- -- Extensive damage throughout entire area prevented rail service for weeks. Black Hills Press (July 26, 1905).
July 1905 July 26, 1905 -- -- -- -- X Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Peak flow of 2,500 ft3/s occurred July 26, 1905, on for Rapid Creek. Miller (1986)
July 1905 July 26, 1905 -- -- -- X X Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Peak flow of 2,500 ft3/s occurred on July 26, 1905, during early period of USGS data collection at station 06414000 (Rapid Creek at Rapid City). U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
July 1905 July 30, 1905 -- -- -- X X Cheyenne River -- Edgemont Peak flow of 13,000 ft3/s on July 30, 1905, during early period of USGS data collection at station 06395000 (Cheyenne River at Edgemont). U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
-- Aug. 12, 1905 -- -- X X -- Hat Creek -- -- Peak flow of 9,150 ft3/s on August 12, 1905, during early period of USGS data collection at station 06400000 (Hat Creek near Edgemont); exceeded only by peak flows of 9,430 ft3/s (1954) and 13,300 ft3/s (1967). U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
Apr. 1906 Apr. 1906 -- -- -- -- X Belle Fourche River Hay Creek Belle Fourche Belle Fourche River reported as within a few feet of record stage. Custer Chronicle (Apr. 14, 1906).
-- Apr. 1906 -- -- -- -- X Cheyenne River -- Oral Bridge damaged from high water. Twomey and Magee (1983)
May 1907 May 27, 1907 -- -- -- X -- Cheyenne River -- Rapid City Heavy (record) rainfall and disruptions to rail service reported. Rapid City Journal (May 28, 1907).
May 1907 May 25, 1907 -- -- X X -- Belle Fourche River Various Belle Fourche Belle Fourche River reported as nearing record stage of 1883 and still rising.  Heavy rains and high flows reported throughout entire Belle Fourche River watershed. Deadwood Pioneer Times (May 26, 1907).
May 25, 1907 May 26, 1907 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek Spearfish Creek Deadwood Record snowfall (at least 2.5 feet) reported for May 25, 1907, which followed a prolonged rain. Deadwood Pioneer Times (May 26, 1907). Page 1; page 2; page 3.
May 1907 May 1907 -- -- -- -- X Cottonwood Creek Cheyenne River Edgemont High water reported for Cottonwood Creek and Cheyenne River with localized flooding. Edgemont Express (May 31, 1907). Page 1; page 2.
May 1907 May 1907 -- -- -- X -- Cheyenne River Missouri, Bad, and White Rivers -- Reported that the "government river gauge" at Russo was inundated by extremely high flow in the Cheyenne River, which contributed to a rapid rise in the Missouri River.  Rapid City Journal (June 1, 1907).
May 1907 May 1907 -- -- -- -- X French Creek -- -- High flows reported throughout Black Hills.  During the previous year (1906), 20 bridges were destroyed along French Creek in one storm. Custer Chronicle (June 1, 1907).
May 1907 May 1907 -- -- -- -- X Belle Fourche River -- Belle Fourche Belle Fourche River was reported as being very high, but was subsiding. Custer Chronicle (June 8, 1907). Page 1; page 2.
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- -- -- -- -- Boxelder Creek -- -- Peak flow of 16,000 ft3/s occurred on June 12, 1907, at station 06422500 (Boxelder Creek near Nemo).  Peak flow determination made from historical gage-height record and application of 1972 rating curve. U.S. Geological Survey (2009)
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Whitewood Creek -- Deadwood Record rainfall reported throughout much of Black Hills.  Elk Creek was reported as highest ever as of date of article (1907) .  Damage was not severe in Deadwood, but was more severe in many areas.  Reported that the extent of damage will be unknown for some time.   Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 13, 1907). Page 1; page 2.
June 12–13, 1907 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Miller (1986) reported a 24-hour rainfall total of 7.1 inches for Ft. Meade. Miller (1986)
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Rapid and Boxelder Creeks Elk Creek and others Rapid City Massive damage reported throughout area.  Elk Creek fared worse than Boxelder Creek.  Rail was heavily damaged east of Rapid City, indicating probable high flows in Boxelder Creek.  Heavy storm in Hill City area resulted in rail damage.  More damage to north than south, but rail damage reported along Spring Creek and near Hermosa. Rapid City Journal (June 14, 1907). Page 1; page 2; page 3.
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Rapid Creek Boxelder Creek -- Article provided a recount of article from previous day (June 14, 1907), with additional accounts of damage.   Rain east of the Black Hills apparently was not as heavy as in the central Black Hills, but all rail bridges were out along Boxelder Creek west of Owanka. Rapid City Journal (June 15, 1907). Page 1; page 2.
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Elk and Boxelder Creeks -- -- Additional damage reports provided.  Heavy rain and hail reported for Custer. Rapid City Journal (June 16, 1907).
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- -- X -- -- Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Peak flow of 13,000 ft3/s occurred on June 12, 1907, on Rapid Creek from 5 inches or more of rain in 6 hours.  Antecedent moisture since May 26, 1907, also was noted. Miller (1986)
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 X X X -- -- Various Various Various Severe flooding reported along Rapid Creek and many other Black Hills locations. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2008)
May 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- -- -- -- -- Rapid Creek -- Rapid City Various details regarding flooding along Rapid Creek were reported. Johnson (1949). 
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 X -- -- -- -- Stagebarn Canyon Elk and Little Elk Creeks Piedmont Detailed account provided for Stagebarn Canyon.  Dr. O'Hara (SDSM&T) reported debris 18.5 feet above floor of canyon. Honerkamp (1978). Page 49, page 205; page 206; p. 207; p. 208, p. 209 (copies used with permission).
June 12, 1907 June 12-13, 1907 -- X -- -- -- Stagebarn Canyon, Little Elk Creek Bear Butte Creek Piedmont Article recounts the severe flood on June 12, 1907, in Stagebarn Canyon. Between Rapid City and Mystic, "the Crouch Line Railroad had only five small bridges left out of a total of 110, with grades washed out and rails wrapped around trees." Fielder (1964)
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 X -- -- -- -- Stagebarn Canyon -- -- This is an account of the June 1907 storm and flood that was printed in November 1974. Rapid City Journal (Nov. 8, 1949). Page 1; page 2.
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- -- -- -- Storm in southern Black Hills was thought by many to be the heaviest ever, as of date of article (1907). Custer Chronicle (undated).
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 X -- -- -- -- Stagebarn Canyon -- Piedmont Storm was reported as heaviest ever known in Sturgis area as of date of article (1907), but damage was less than in other areas.  Wall of water estimated as 15 feet high in Stagebarn Canyon. Black Hills Press (June 19, 1907).
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Stagebarn Canyon, Elk Creek -- Tilford Five deaths reported from floods of June 12–13, 1907. Custer Chronicle (June 22, 1907).
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- X X X -- Elk and Boxelder Creeks -- -- Additional details provided on the heavy rains and flooding of June 12–13, 1907, which were reported as the most widespread and damaging of any that had occurred in the Black Hills as of date of article (1907). Custer Chronicle (June 22, 1907).
June 12, 1907 June 12–13, 1907 -- -- X X -- Rapid Creek -- -- A dozen railroad bridges were washed out between Mystic and Rapid City. Custer Chronicle (July 27, 1907).
June 1, 1908 June 1, 1908 -- -- -- -- X -- -- Hot Springs Heavy rains reported for Hot Springs area with rail damage and delays.  Probably same flood as reported by Hot Springs Weekly Star (June 5, 1908) below. Rapid City Journal (June 2, 1908).
May–June 1908 May–June 1908 -- -- -- X -- Fall River Cold Brook and Hot Brook Hot Springs Heavy storm occurred on May 31, 1908, following a week of rain.  Highest stage on June 1, 1908, was within about 3 feet of a bridge that marked high water from two previous larger floods (August 1897 and June 1905).  Additional heavy rain occurred on June 2. Hot Springs Weekly Star (April 18, 1946 reprint of June 5, 1908 article). Page 1; page 2.
May–June 1908 May–June 1908 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Short story on flooding reported by Hot Springs Weekly Star (June 5, 1908) above. Twomey and Magee (1983)
May–June 1908 May–June 1908 -- -- -- X -- Fall River -- Hot Springs Photos of June 1908 flooding. Twomey and Magee (1983). 
May–June 1908 May–June 1908 -- -- -- X -- Cheyenne River -- Hot Springs area Young man drowned while crossing Cheyenne River at high flow. Twomey and Magee (1983)
June 1908 June 1908 -- -- -- -- X -- Various -- Widespread rail damage and delays reported in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. Edgemont Express, Alliance Times (June 6, 1908). Page 1; page 2.
May 1909 May 1909 -- -- -- X -- Belle Fourche River Various Belle Fourche Substantial damage reported for Belle Fourche. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2008)
May 1909 May 31, 1909 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek -- Deadwood Flooding reported in Deadwood that was caused by two heavy rains during previous days. Deadwood Telegram (June 1, 1909).
May 1909 May–June 1909 -- -- -- X -- Spearfish Creek -- Spearfish Worst flood reported since 1904.  Substantial damage reported, including severe rail damage in Spearfish Canyon, which may indicate more severe flooding in Spearfish Canyon than in 1904. Deadwood Telegram (June 2, 1909).
May 1909 May–June 1909 -- -- -- X -- Spearfish Creek -- Spearfish Additional details provided on flooding in Spearfish area. Queen City Mail (June 2, 1909).
May 1909 May–June 1909 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek -- Deadwood Widespread rail damage and delays reported. Deadwood Telegram (June 2, 1909). Page 1; page 2.
May–June 1909 May–June 1909 -- -- -- X X -- Bear Butte Creek -- Flooding occurred from a week of rain.  Bear Butte Creek reported to be very high. Black Hills Press (June 3, 1909).
May 31, 1909 May 31, 1909 -- -- X X -- Belle Fourche River Many Belle Fourche Widespread flooding reported.  Belle Fourche River reported as 4 feet higher than ever before at VVV ranch. Northwest Post - Belle Fourche (June 3, 1909). Page 1; page 2; page 3.
May 31, 1909 May 31, 1909 -- -- -- X X Whitewood Creek -- Deadwood Flooding reported in Deadwood.  Report of 12 inches of rain within about 1 week. Deadwood Daily Pioneer Times (1), Weekly Pioneer Times (3) (June 1, 3, 1909).
June 8, 1909 June 8–9, 1909 -- -- -- X -- Spearfish Creek Redwater River Spearfish Damage primarily downstream from Spearfish was reported.  Flooding appears to be from storm of June 8, 1909, as reported by the Deadwood Pioneer Times article (June 9, 1909), rather than associated with flooding of previous week. Queen City Mail (June 9, 1909). Page 1; page 2.
June 8, 1909 June 8,9, 1909 -- -- -- -- X Spearfish Creek Various Spearfish Storm was perhaps heaviest in the Spearfish and New Underwood areas. Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 9, 1909). Page 1; page 2.
June 10–11, 1909 June 10–11, 1909 -- -- -- X -- -- Hay Creek New Underwood Second flood in New Underwood reported for the week.  Another storm reported along Hay Creek in Belle Fourche. Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 11, 1909). Page 1; page 2.
June 10–11, 1909 June 10–11, 1909 -- -- -- X -- Rapid Creek Various Rapid City Heaviest rain recorded at Weather Bureau in Rapid City as of date of article (1909).  Same storm affected New Underwood (June 9, 1909, Deadwood Pioneer Times article) and other areas south of Rapid City. Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 11, 1909).
-- June 11, 1909 -- -- -- X -- Bear Butte Creek Various -- Evacuation of 20 homes along Bear Butte Creek reported.  Other damage reported elsewhere. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2008)
June 11, 1909 June 11–12, 1909 -- -- -- X -- Rapid Creek -- Pactola Report of 20 inches of rain at Pactola.  Rail damage reported.  Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 12, 1909).
June 11, 1909 June 11–12, 1909 -- -- -- X -- Rapid Creek Boxelder Creek Pactola Boxelder Creek reported as 7 feet higher than previous record and Owanka in danger of being swept away Deadwood Pioneer Times (June 12, 1909).
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Progress reported on railroad repairs.  Railroad wires (telegraph) were connected again. Deadwood Daily Pioneer Times-Deadwood (June 16, 1909).
1910 Apr. 1910 -- -- X -- -- Belle Fourche River -- -- Photograph of 1910 flooding on postcard (from Rapid City Journal, March 25, 2009). Rapid City Journal photo (March 25, 2009).



References

Fielder, Mildred, 1964, The Stagebarn Canyon flood: True West, January-February 1964, p. 45, 51.

Johnson, H.N., 1949, A climatological survey of the Black Hills: Rapid City, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Black Hills Engineer, v. 29, no. 1, p. 3-35.

Honerkamp, J.R., 1978, At the foot of the mountain: Piedmont, S. Dak., privately published, 232 p.

Miller, J.R., 1986, Rapid City climate: Rapid City, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Foundation, 66 p.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008, The Rapid City flood of 1972—historic Black Hills floods, accessed December 12, 2008, at http://www.crh.noaa.gov/unr/?n=history.

South Dakota Historical Society, 1960, South Dakota Department of History—Report and historical collections: Stickney, S. Dak., Argus Printers, v. 30.

Twomey, K. and Magee, H., eds., and Mueller, D., and Petty, N., compilers, 1983, Early Hot Springs:  Hot Springs, S. Dak., Star Publishers, 117 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, National Water Information System (NWISWeb)—Peak streamflow for South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey database, http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/sd/nwis/peak.


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